Public Administration is concerned with a complex phenomenon of government. Its activities in a modern state. It is a youngest discipline in the branch of study of political science.
In the modern age today Public administration has become a dominant factor in life in the modern age. As the modern states are wedded to the principle of of its citizens.
The sphere of activity and role of the government has considerably increased which has widened the scope of Public administration. It has significance in developing countries.
The government here is engaged with climination of poverty, literacy, disease and to promote general happiness and welfare which is the secret of Public administration.
Public administration : Meaning
Public administration has been derived from the word administration which is a co-operative efforts towards the realization of a consciously laid down objective.
Public administration refers to activities of government that means the activities of the executive, legislative and judicial branch of government .Some others consider it as dealing with the activities of the executive department only.
Public administration is the synthesis of two words, public implying the government or the people and administration, refers to a process to care for or look after the people in a state. Scholars differ in their view on the definition of the subject.
According to L.D White
“Public administration consists of all these operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public as declare by competent authority”.
But on other hand Marshall E. Dimock holds that, Public administration is concerned with the what and the how of government. The ‘what’ is the subject matter, the technical knowledge of a failed which enrolls the administration to perform his tasks; and the ‘how’ is the technique of management, the principles according to which co-operative programmers are carried to success.
In the opinion of Lutter Gullick ,” Public administration is the part of the science of administration which has to with government and thus concerns itself primarily with the executive branch where the work of government is done,though there are obviously problems also in connection with legislative and judicial branches.
While Woodrow Wilson refers it is to detailed and systematic application of law. Simon holds it as the activities of the executive branches of national, states and local government.
These above definitions show that , Public administration may be concerned with the activities of the government as a whole or the activity of the executive department only.
Public administration is primarily concerned with the implementation of public those activities which are undertaken to fulfill or implement to enforce public policy are included in Public administration.
So, it includes the activities performed by different organs of government in the field of law, justice, social welfare, health, hygiene etc. are included in Public administration. Public administration is a human activity and it is managed by human beings and several human beings.
Nature of Public administration :
The nature of Public administration is unease there are two views as the integral and the managerial view. According to the integral views administration is the sum total of all activities manual, clerical, managerial and technical etc.
Undertaken in pursuit of an objective in activities of an errand boy the force man, the gatekeeper, the sweeper as well as the secretary to the government constitute administration.
But the managerial view holds that, it is concerned with the work of only those persons engaged in performing managerial functions in an enterprise. The activities concerning management unit control and coordinate of all those operations undertaken in the enterprise look like an integrated effort.
The integral view is supported by Simon, Smithburg and Thompson subscribe to the managerial view. The Integral view is wider as it take into account the entire personnel of an undertaking as engaged in administration. But the managerial view subscribes to the fact that administration is the organisation and use of money, men and material in the pursuit of a given objective.
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION : SCOPE
There is a controversy among scholars as to the scope of Public administration. Some limit its area of study as to the administrative activities of the government. But government has three different organs Executive, Judiciary, Legislature. Public administration seeks to study the activities and behavior of these organs.
But some other hold that, it is concerned with the working of administration branch only. Luther Gullick supports to this view as he writes that ,”Public administration is that part of science of administration which primarily concerned with the executive branch where the actual work of the government is done.“
Peary Macqeen describes the scope of Public administration into the study of money. Men and materials and methods. In the earlier stage the American authors were influenced by the business and organisation but consequently they have modified it. The earlier analysis of Willoughby was that ,it is concerned with.
- General overhead administration : which includes allocation of functions, direction, supervisions and control.
- Organisation : Building of the administrative structure
- Personnel management
- Material supply
POSDCORB view of public administration :
But posdcorb view of public administration modified and is indicated by the words ‘POSDCORB’. This view is known after the name of Luther Gullick .In this view ,the scope of Public administration includes ‘POSDCORB’,
If we elaborate the term of ‘POSDCORB‘ we can find that
‘P’ stands for planning. It means that defining the things to be one and the method in which it is to be done.
And then ‘O’ stands for organisation. It refers to the building up of structure of authority through which the entire work is to be done and arranged into well defined subdivision and coordination.
‘S’ stands for staffing .It means the appointment of suitable person to various posts under the organisation and the whole personnel management.
‘D’ implies direction: making decisions are issuing orders and instructions embodying them for the guidance of the staff.
Them it comes for the term ‘CO’ and it stands for coordination :Inter relating the various parts of the work and eliminating of overlapping and conflict.
‘R’ takes the support for reporting : keeping the superior and the subordinates informed of what is going on and arranging for the collection of such information through inspection, research and records.
‘B’ stands for budgeting: which stands for the whole financial administration.
The ‘POSDCORB‘ activities are common to all large scale organisations. These are performed by Public administration irrespective of the fact whether it is involved in military or in civil administration, or in the administration of central or stage government or even of the local units.
But it can not ignore the role of various agencies. The ‘POSDCORB’ view regarding the scope of the subject matter view.
But, as modern public administration is concerned with group process, communication, leadership skills and decision making. So, the scope of public administration must include the following things.
(I) An administration should keep himself informed on the nature and the dynamic of his community, including the richly variegated political and power questions involved.
(II) He must try to improve upon the communication process .
(III)Emphasis must be given on political and power of questions which may be there in the shape of informal organisation with a formal one.
(IV)An atmosphere is to be created in which small groups functioning within his organisation can most effectively and expeditiously carry on their work.
(V)He must provide an atmosphere in which the contributions of the creative individuals may be maximized.
(IV)He must undertake necessary training ,education and development work for himself and his subordinates, required by the dictate and demanding tasks just reviewed.