Trees are the ultimate treasures to world. This treasure is for all the animals, environment, human being etc. Forest provide all goods and necessities to all. This necessity includes all the air we consume for respiration, food, clothes, shelter etc.
Forest is also an important part of Ecosystem. It controls the balance between Environment and the lively things living in it.If ever forest disappears then all the species on earth eventually disappear.
To bring more than we need is always called as greed. This greed of human now has become a leading cause to forest causing deforestation. “Deforestation” refers to cutting down of forest or clearance through mankind to get benefit of the land.
Deforestation also means a permanent removal of trees for making a room for something besides forest. Deforestation is also caused by natural activities of nature including Tornado. But human caused activities are mainly responsible for decrease in percentage of forest.
CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION :
Deforestation is drawing the world toward the destruction. The process of deforestation is still going on. Causes of deforestation is mainly due to human activities.
It is estimated that 46% of forest have been failed since while human started cutting down forest. It is also estimated that, from the year of 2016 an average of 28 million hectares have been cut down every year.
If we countdown then it is concluded that 46-58 square miles of forest are lost in every minute and one football field of forest are lost in every single second. So, the question arises that what made mankind to cut so many trees down ? and why is it still on ?
Many and different kinds of factors are responsible for deforestation. Both natural and human activities are responsible for deforestation. Natural factors include forest fires, droughts, exotic animals, floods, climate changes and parasites. But these factors are temporary. If the forest is lost by a natural cause then the new trees could be grown up in those places.
The deforestation that is caused by human activities are more destructive because the deforestation is permanent. Human made deforestation occurs when the forested area is cleared to make way for human needs such as :agricultural use, urbanization or mining and road construction. Due to these reasons the human deforestation is permanent and even more critical that natural deforestation.
DEFORESTATION DUE TO AGRICULTURE :
Agriculture is backbone to every nation and world itself. According to FAO it is found that more than 60% of world’s population depend upon agriculture for survival. For growing population the demand of agricultural product is been increasing. To produce more crops there is a huge shortage of land which is the vital cause of lack of forest.
This estimates that 80% of tropical deforestation is due to agriculture and 27% of total deforestation during 2001-2005 was also due to commodity driven farming. Industrial agriculture is responsible for 30% deforestation in Africa and close to 70% of deforestation in Latin America.
Human lit fire commonly used in almost in every corner of world for agriculture, is the supreme cause of deforestation. These method of agriculture has dangerous effects on forest in 2019,for example more than 80000 trees were burned in Amazon. It was an increase of almost 80% deforestation in comparison to the year 2018.
Cattle grazing, a part of agriculture is also responsible for deforestation in the world. In every corner of the world there is huge increase of cattle grazing .In this method the forested land is cleared and burnt to make room for cattle grazing.
The livestock sectors is linked to 75% of deforestation in Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Livestock farming contribute 18% of human produced greenhouse gas emissions to the environment causing Global warming.
The expanding urbanization is an another leading cause for deforestation. Urbanization due to population growth is a vital cause for growing Deforestation. It .It is said that urbanization is the biggest enemy of forest. The land of urban is expanding with an average twice as fast as urban population. Urbanization is one of the direct cause leading deforestation.
It is estimated that urbanization is responsible for 5% of deforestation throughout the world. According to a report 68% of world’s population is expected to live in cities by 2050 which is going to be minac to forest.
Urbanization leads to a high growth of housing and consumption sites. This leads the population to move from rural areas to urban areas contributing the most of deforestation.
DEFORESTATION DUE TO CONSTRUCTION :
Construction is an another issue for forest. The increasing rate of deforestation by constructions have a significant impacts on forest efficiency. Although agricultural activities logging and farming are mainly responsible for deforestation but these things came to possible because of the construction of roads through forest area.
The expansion of road, construction through Amazon basin and Indo-malayan tropical forest of southeast Asia has been increasing and causing the rate of deforestation. In Brazilian Amazon rainforest it is seen that about 95% of all deforestation occurs within 50 KM of highway or roads.
Mining takes another part of deforestation. In the sub-tropics it is estimated that 7% of global deforestation is due to the extraction of oil, gas and minerals. Due to the extraction of oil, gas and mineral the forest areas is been decreasing.
Deforestation is a hidden menace in itself, but it does not exceeds only in forest. Deforestation forest. Deforestation associates many more huge problems to the world. These severe problems include climate change, soil erosion, floods, change in biodiversity and environment, decrease in the amount of animal species.
IMPACTS OF DEFORESTATION :
(1) CLIMATE CHANGE :
Deforestation is foremost contributor towards climate change. It is estimated that Deforestation along contributes 25% of total world’s greenhouse gas production. Forest absorbs a huge amount of carbon dioxide and releases oxygen.
It is found that all the forest in the world store double of the carbon dioxide that is present in the atmosphere. During deforestation the forest releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere causing global warming. This global warming is responsible for annihilation called climate change.
Deforestation is the second leading cause for climate change. In 2019 deforestation was responsible for 11% of global greenhouse emission.
(2) SOIL EROSION :
Deforestation is also responsible for soil erosion. Soil erosion is a major problem that has been increasing day by day.
The root system of the forest consists many large roots that eventually reduces in many small roots. These rot system hold soil in place and prevent them to fade away. These roots of trees grow more deeply into the soil and provide a greater resistance to erosion on soil. Deforestation decreases the force of interaction between soil and roots resulting soil erosion.
Soil erosion is responsible for many complication including loss of fertile land, pollution and sedimentation in rivers, clogging waterways and also causes the decrease in fish and other species. Due to the deforestation and other small reasons the half of the top soil on the earth as been lost in last 150 years.
(3) FLOOD :
Forest socks a huge amount of water from the soil through their root system. Thus this absorption of water makes the soil more dry making them more capable to hold water. Also the roots of the trees hold the soil in place. This reduces the movement of sediment that can shrink river channel down streams. In this ways the forest prevents flood.
Due to the cutting down of trees the capability of soil to hold water is reduce resulting the situation of flood. In 1988 there was a huge flood in YANGTZE River. According to many data it was concluded that these flood was due to loss of 85% of forest on the Yangtze watershed.
(4) REDUCED BIODIVERSITY :
A greater variety of biodiversity is found in forest including many rare species. Forests are home to almost 80% of world’s terrestrial biodiversity. Forests are a major and migrating factor to ecosystem. This ecosystem which always needs to be balanced is now being disturbed for deforestation.18.7 million acres of forest are lost annually causing huge impact on ecosystem. This disturbed ecosystem has a worse impact on animals.
Deforestation leads to the direct loss of a huge amount of animals and plant species.80% of animals and plant species live and depend upon the forests. Deforestation is major problem to them because it is estimated that more than 1,000 of animals live in a square kilometer of forest.
Deforestation reduces the quality of the animals living in the forest. It decreases the amount of food they consume, availability of shelter and breeding habitat. Many animals are also killed or captured by humans or predictors when found out of the forests.
Every year deforestation leads to death of 5 million of animals,10.7million of birds and 67.1 million of reptiles in the world. So, now this is crystal clear that from the above many reasons, Deforestation is spreading its dangerous impacts more and more.
Due to urbanization we cut down trees or in other words we can say that we invite the destruction of mankind directly. By cutting down the forest for cattle grazing and farming are the indirect destructive steps taken by human beings.
These reasons are like slow poisons to both mankind and for all the biodiversity .Flood is a terrible result of deforestation that is causing the damage of properties such as lives of animals, human being and plants. The damage of forest is the damage of earth. To rescue our planet we have to stop deforestation.
It is our responsibility to create a better world for our next generation. Otherwise they will suffer for our fault. If we don’t stop deforestation then, within 19 years we will be out of fresh drinking water and after 79 years the earth will be out of rain forest.
It also fascinating that every single thing you use in your daily life is a product borne from the forest. Starting from a pencil to the bed you sleep. So the importance of forest is still underestimated by people including you also.
To prevent these worse conditions we must take preventions against deforestation.