Human development is also related to the sustainable development. If you are a close reader of our site you can find the page easily, If you are not then you are missed out to know ,what is human development is ?

The continuing antagonistic relationship between pax economica and pax populi and development and environment had been the main concern of thinkers for a long time. In other words :how to give a human face to economic development? How to be green in our thinking? How to maximize our happiness, peace, freedom and well being without destroying our environment?


These have been important issues before thinkers for a long time. The Sustainable development, in fact, is mainly concerned with the question? Or to put it one sentence how to Sustain the present level of well being and make it available to all.

The origin of the concept Sustainable development is credited to Brundtland commission report prepared under the auspices of the U.N world commission on environment and development. According to this report Sustainable development actually means 

“Development that needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, improved living standard for all, better protected and managed ecosystem and a safer ,more prosperous future”.



The outcome of realization of these grave situation was the agenda 21: Green path to the future or Rio declaration,1992.Though there are many highlight of the declaration the quintessence of it is presented in the underlining this principle 

  • Human beings at the center of Sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and protective life in harmony with nature. Right to development must be fulfilled by maintaing inter general equity.
  • Environmental protection should be constitute an integral part of development process in order to achieve Sustainable development 
  • Eradication of poverty is an indispensable requirement for Sustainable development. Cooperation with the states and individual can be more effective in improving the standard of living of the people.
  • Least developed countries are also environmentally most vulnerable. International communities must pay special attention and give priority in order to address the needs of these countries.
  • States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve and restore the health and integrity of earth’s  ecosystem. Developed should shoulder greater responsibility because there activity exert more pressure on the global environment.
  • States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity – building measures for  Sustainable development through proper scientific temper for enhancing, adoption, diffusion and transfer of technology including innovations of technology.
  • Every state shall enact effective environmental legislation. It should judge the relevance of the existing discriminatory legislation adopted by certain countries particularly against of poor countries.
  • The national authorities should work for internationalization of environment costs as part of the total production cost.
  • Environmental impact assessment shall become an integral part of the national economic policy.
  • Sharing a information regarding environmental issues among the states shall be the basis of  building the good will and faith among the states.
  • Environmental management, Sustainable development  and gender empowerment are interdependent. Women should become the focus of all the three
  • War and  Sustainable development are antihetical to each other. Every state should ensure that minimum damages take place to the environment in the case of wars.
  • Peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible.
  • States shall resolve all there environmental disputes through peaceful means in accordance with the charter of the U.N
  • States shall formulate loss to punish those who are responsible for environmental pollution and environmental damages and make provision to adequately compensate the victims of environmental degradation  
  • States shall actively discourage the transfer of substances that are found to the harmful to human beings and cause environmental degradation.
  • Every state will have to take precautionary measures to protect their environmental depending upon there capabilities. However ,lack of scientific know -how to technical lag shall not be taken as an excuse to carry on activities that are a threat to the environmental and result in reversible damages.
  • In case of natural deserters, it the responsibility of the state to share the information with other states that are likely to be affected by such deserters. The international communities should come forward to help the states so affected.
  • Youth all over the world has greater responsibilities to implement sustainable development because it mainly their generation,which is going to be the immediate victim and sufferer from ecological deserters.
  • Right to protect one’s identity should be the basis of sustainable development.It is particularly applicable to the indigenous communities.Every states should take appropriate measures to recognize indigenous knowledge and practices and involve these communities in the success of sustainable development.
  • Freedom of people should include end of domination, occupation and operation of people and their environmental by the oppressors. Restoration of complete rights over the environmental and natural resources should be the part of the concept of freedom.
  • To attain sustainable development ,it the responsibility of states to reduce and eliminate unsustainable patters of production and consumption without compromising and ever increasing higher quality of life to all people.
  • Environmental should be the concern of everyone and issues related to it should be handled through the participation of cornered citizens at relevant levels. However it is the responsibility of the state to provide relevant information and encourage awareness among the public including the dangers hazardous materials and possible remedies for the same.
  • Economic growth should be linked with sustainable development. State should ensure that the global economic system, particularly world market relations and trade policies that are discriminatory against the poor countries, should be changed in order to achieve sustainable development. 
  • Finally it appeals to every individual and state to cooperate and develop partnership based on good faith in order to achieve sustainable development.


There is unanimity of opinions among scholars about the materials achievements beings have made in the last three centuries. Among these the achievements of the 20th  century are spectacular ,but this has been possible at huge social and environmental costs. Scholars have always expressed their apprehensions about the short-term material prosperity and warned people at large about the impending and future crises.

There are differences of opinions among scholars and philosophers on the approached to be adopted for attaining sustainable development. People have taken positions ranging from spiritual and moral to crass materialist .

Gandhi, for example ,was in favor of taking a moralist position when he said” the earth has enough to satisfy the human needs but next to nothing to satisfy the greed of even one individual “.Gandhi’s approach  was based on the broader principles of non-violence and truth. According to to him ,the western approach to development has placed mind over hands, man over nature and technology over experiences.

At the other extreme were those that advocate the philosophy of “being is having”. According to the advocates of this philosophy the technological revolutions particularly in last three centuries have endowed the modern human with all the possible comforts and possibilities.

Today, we are more satisfied ,confident and also enjoy greater freedom than our ancestors did three hundred years ago. Modern human has succeeded in mastering both time and space with every incremental doses of new technology. Technology has transformed our beings. The new being is based on more choices and thus ,more freedom.


More than 150 countries that had participated in the proceeding of the conference and there were definitely at least more that 465 agenda items in circulation at the venue of the conference. more that 160 proposal by the official representatives of the respective states.

160 proposals that were covertly expressed through the voices of dissent in respective states. Yet another set of 160 proposals that were articulated by the non-government organisations (NGO) of every country. So this was the most difficult tasks before the UN to arrive at a consensus on such a contentious issue.

There are two perspectives of sustainable development 
 one is – perspective of developed countries 
and another is perspective of developing countries.