When we talk about soil, a open ground with full of grass come to our mind. But that picture of your mind is not enough for this question’s answer. Soil means a layer on the earth surface on which whole life cycle continuous.

Also under the water this definition is valid. All the animals, plants, under water life get their food and minerals from this. We all built our houses, offices on this. We walk, dig and cultivate on this. Some places soil also worship as mother. So, it is a important part of our life cycle.  



Do you have a social media account on any social site? If you have it, you must familiar to the word “PROFILE”. Profile means a data imputed layer by layer. It tells everything about you. Suppose First your name, then your picture after it you put your bio-data. After everything your data put serially, now that is your account.

If we compare social media format soil profile is not exactly like that but it deposited layer by layer, like your deposited data. When we cut a ground vertically, we can see different types of processed soil and this is called soil profile.


When we cut the soil vertically it shows various sections of it ,which consist different kind of processed soil is called as soil profile. Soil have different layers and it differs from one to another. If we cut a ground vertically we can find soil as the below picture.

It took thousands of years to form soil one upon another. Thousand years taken by soil to be processed from a parent rock to top most soil. Now we shall go through upper diagram of soil profile to get the details about it. There are some categories in which way soil profile is categorized as – 

  • “O” horizon 
  • “A” horizon
  • “E” horizon
  • “B” horizon
  • “C” horizon
  • “R” horizon

soil profile, horizon, soil layers
source: google images

I.“O” Horizon

This horizon is otherwise known as organic horizon. This is the top most soil layer where all the living things move around. This O horizon is divided into two parts such as 

  1. O1 horizon

This is the top most soil horizon on which we live. Most of the living creatures done their work on this surface. Plants grow on this part of the soil profile. Also plants and animals dead end found on this horizon. So it is rich in organic materialism.

  1. O2 horizon

As well as the O2 horizon found next to the O1 horizon so all the matters found in this, deposited by the O1 horizon. The most important process called as “DECOMPOSING” started here. So this layer means  a lot to us.  

II.”A” horizon-

After the organic horizon  or O horizon of soil profile it is the roll of A horizon. A layer is also a important for soil. The most important part of the soil HUMUS found in this layer of the soil. .As to other layer this layer is also divided into two parts as followed
  1. “A1″horizon-Which matter is collected in organic horizon  have deposited it to A1 horizon. This part of the soil profile is rich in minerals which passed by the above layers. Humus found in this layer.
  1. “A2″horizon-In A2 horizon their are lesser amount of minerals comparing to above layers. We can also see that is also less organic. Humus is also found in this layer.

III.”E” horizon-

E horizon or E zone of the soil profile is also known as the alluvial zone. you can find this layer just next to the A horizon. All the minerals which have collected from the above layers taken down to the next layer and it left as a sandy. This part of the soil profile doesn’t have much amount of water.

IV.”B” horizon-

As we all know that soil is created by the process of rocks. It is simple to have rock particles in it. It is also divided in to 2 sub categories as to the other layers. They are B1 and B2.

  1. B1 horizon-

In this layer of the soil we can find a bit of organic materials rather it is rich in minerals. Small pieces of rock found here.

  1. B2 Horizon-

Also the small pieces of rocks found in here. B2 horizon is not rich in minerals. Also organic materials are not found in this.

v. “C” horizon-

C horizon have not so much weathered rocks in it. There are a mass amount of big rocks present here.
VI.”R” horizon-It is bottom part of the soil profile. R horizon consists parent rocks .This rocks are not weathered and also consists a good amount of water. Only tight rocks in this part.  

VI.”R” horizon-

R horizon or R layer of the soil profile consists parent rocks. This rocks are not weathered. This layer also consists a good amount of water in it. Massive size of rocks are found in this.